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Harvinder was to participate in a debate to be held in School after a week.She had fully prepared her lesson, remembered it thoroughly and had rehearsed it successfully at home. But she was apprehensive. After all it was to be her first appearance before a large audience. What if she became tongue-tied before uttering a word and what if her memory failed at the time. But she was unnecessarily worried, because 3 doses daily of the combination-Mimulus (for fear of a large audience) and Scleranthus (to ensure remembering at the proper time) given 3 days before the date ensured her success in the school debate.Miss Supreet Kaur—6 years—had a very weak memory. She took quite sometime in expressing herself. She used to grind teeth at night during sleep, had no appetite and had aversion for milk and could not control her bed-wetting habit. She was afraid to go to school for fear of punishment from school teacher and was always depressed and sad. A dose of Cina 200 T.D.S removed her “worm symptoms’ i.e. teeth grinding, loss of appetite etc. Mimulus Remedy given T.D.S. for 3 weeks removed the fear complex from her mind and she started going to school by herself and her memory improved. With the same treatment continued for 3 months’ she became a normal child.*141\308\8*
FFICACY OF THE EXTRACTS OF SOME FLESHY FUNGI AGAINST PHYTOPHTHORA PARASITICA VAR. PIPERINA DAST. INTRODUCTION
The problem of protecting the environment from chemical contaminations has acquired a major significance. Pesticides are one of the contaminants of the environment which are introduced into the planet’s biosphere, though the agricultural practices of plant disease control (Gruzdyev et al., 1983). with a view to coping up the problem of ecological imbalances arising out of the use of pesticides, endeavours have been made to device the effective alternate methods of plant disease control. These include use of disease resistance varieties, biological control and use of the phytochemicals, etc.
Phytophthora parasitica var. piperina is known to cause foot-rot and leaf-rot diseases of Pan (Piper betle Linn.). These diseases often assume serious proportion in the rainy season causing colossal financial loss to the cultivators (Chourasia, 1976). Chemotherapeutic practices are customarily undertaken by the ‘Pan’ cultivators to control these diseases. In the present paper, attempts have been made to elucidate the antimycotic activity of some fleshy fungi against betelvine Phytophthora. In all four parameters including mycelial growth,sporulation, dehydrogenase, and cytochrome oxidase of the test pathogen were taken to evaluate the efficacy of the extracts of ten fleshy fungi.
MATERIALS AND METHOD
Sporocarps of fleshy fungi including Daedalea, Daedale-opsis, Ganoderma, Aricularia, Schizophyllum, Daldinia, Xylaria, Hexagonia, Stereum and Dacrymyces were collected from wood depot and/or local forest in clean polythene bags. They were then brought to the laboratory and kept in oven to get dried materials. The dried materials were made into the powder. Extraction of the dried powder was done by reflexion. Hundred grames of dried fungal tissue powder was extracted with 100 ml of 70% methanol at 50°C for two hours. The methanol extracts were then transferred to the beakers and the methanol was evaporated to dryness at 50°C on a waterbath. The residues were redissolved in 10 ml of 50% methanol and the final volumes were made upto 100 ml with distilled water.
Efficacy of these fungal extracts was tested against mycelial growth (dry weight), sporulation and oxidative enzymes of P. parasitica var piperina.
The extract samples were added to the Darby and Goddard (1950) medium so as to make the final concentrations 5%, 10% and 20% (w/v) in the 150 ml flasks finally containing 20 ml medium. The mycelial growth was observed in terms of dry-weight after 7 days of incubation. The controls were maintained with the basal medium only.
In thepetridishes containing sterile distilled water, were added the required quantities of the extract samples so as to make final concentrations 5%, 10% and 20% (w/v) . In these petridishes were floated 6 mm discs (10 discs in each plates) of betelvine Phytophthora cut from 5 day old culture prepared in Czapek’s sucrose nitrate medium (Mahadevan and Sridhar, 1982). After 7 days of incubation number of the sporangia/mm2 ares was counted under the low power of microscope. The control sets were ri”~, with sterile distilled water only.
Effect of the extracts on dehydrogenase activity (in vivo) was studied by the method originally described by Held et. a/.(1965) and adopted by Chile (1982). Activity of the enzyme was measured as change in optical density/gm fresh mycelium.
Cytochrome oxidase activity was assayed in vitro by the method as described in Oser (1965) with slight modifications as done by Chile (1982). The activity of the enzyme was recorded as change in optical density/ml mycelial extract.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
As shown in Table-1, with the exception of Dacry-myces, almost all the fungal extracts caused inhibitory effects on the mycelial growth of betelvine Phytophthora. The inhibitory responses were however, not very much significant with Hexagonia and Stereum. Maximum inhibition upto 61 % and 62% was noticed with Schizophyllum and Auricularia respectively. All other fungal extracts were also sufficiently inhibitory to the mycelial growth as the percentage of inhibition was found to be around 50% or more in most of the cases particularly at 20% concentration of the samples. Interestingly, Dacrymyces induced some stimulation on growth o.f the test fungus.
This reveals that almost all the extract samples were inhibitory to the sporulation of betelvine Phytophthora. Maximum inhibition (upto73%) was induced by Schizophyllum extract followed by Auricularia (upto 67%). The responses induced by Hexagonia and Stereum were not very much significant. Amongst the remaining samples, 20% concentration of almost all the fungal extracts caused nearly 50% or more suppression of sporulation.
A perusal of table-3 reveals the effect of the fungal extract samples (20% concentration) on dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase activity of betelvine Phytophthora. All the fungal samples were found capable of suppressing the activity of the test fungus. However, Auricularia (73%), Daedaleopsis (67%) and Daedalea (44%) showed good deal of inhibitory activity.
Cytochrome oxidase activity of the test pathogen was also reduced by all but one fungal extract samples. Maximum inhibition was caused by Dacrymyces (71 %) followed by Schizophyllum (68%) and Ganoderma (66%) respectively. Interestingly, a slight stimulation in the cytochrome oxidase activity was evident with Hexagonia.
The fleshy fungi are known to contain toxic substances which cause Mycetismus (Mushroom poisoning) to manv mycophagists (Emmons et. al., 1977). There are well documented informations of toxins of fleshy fungi causing protoplasmic poisoning, inhibition of activity of enzymes including those of oxidative metabolism, protein synthesis and nucleic acid metabolism; neurologic effects and gastrointestinal irritations (Ford, 1923; Tyler, 1963; Wieland, 1968; Becker, 1976). Good deal of inhibition caused by fleshy fungi on mycelial growth, sporulation dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase of Phytophthora indicates the presence of antimycotic substances in their fruiting bodies. The fleshy fungi, therefore, can be the effective materials for the control of plant diseases. However, before their use, in vivo efficacy and phytotoxicity of these fungi should be tested.
Another means of unwinding is to read something pleasant or take a leisurely walk where we can take in calming impressions from nature around us. The result will be a relaxed state of mind leading to undisturbed repose. I am in no doubt that exciting radio broadcasts and television programmes that last until the early hours of the morning are the worst enemies of restful sleep.
On the other hand, not all dreams are troublesome; indeed, some dreams are quite pleasant and may let you experience some beautiful things you may never have had the chance to see in real life. As a result, you will wake up happy and contented after your ‘trip’ to far-distant lands. A feeling of joyful surprise may fill your being as you visit the jungles and other sights of nature, without having to spend the time and money that would have been necessary had it all been reality.
Correct breathing is not only good for the head, abdomen and the whole body, but it influences and stimulates the activity of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. These interesting anatomical mechanisms, which could be described as being able to function without a brain, are responsible for the involuntary or subconscious functions of the body. All depend upon correct breathing. In fact, if deep-breathing is practised, you will notice that the sympathetic nervous system works more efficiently, also influencing the activity of the heart.
Even conditions such as angina pectoris may be improved and perhaps even rectified with the help of deep-breathing, if other curative measures are employed at the same time.
If the bronchial tubes have not degenerated beyond repair, deep-breathing can sometimes even cure asthma. If not a cure, then at least a significant improvement is possible.
While constipation requires the regular intake of natural food for improvement, it is put right with correct breathing. If you breathe in and out correctly and sufficiently you will notice that the bowels begin to function better. Five, ten or fifteen minutes, each morning, afternoon and evening should be devoted to deep-breathing exercises. It may take a week, two weeks or even four weeks before the bowels will begin to function more efficiently, but regular movement will not fail to come.
If your gums bleed easily or become soft and spongy around the teeth, if you constantly have small ulcers or sores on your gums and oral mucosa, if your skin bleeds easily, if you notice swellings near the joints, or if you suffer from a general feeling of weakness and weariness, then you must add raw sauerkraut to your daily diet and make your salad dressing with lemon juice. The old Central European saying that ‘sauerkraut every day keeps the doctor away’ is undoubtedly true, for raw sauerkraut is a wonderful remedy and should have a place of honour in every home. If you have no opportunity to make it yourself, go and buy some at a health food or delicatessen. In addition to vitamin C, its content of natural lactic acid and other effective enzymes makes sauerkraut a remedial food.
Sauerkraut water or juice is an excellent remedy for many gastric and intestinal disorders and ailments, but beware of the highly salty, factory-made sauerkraut, which cannot be considered\good for health. Remember, too, that only when it is raw does sauerkraut have the above-mentioned anti-scorbutic elements, supplementary substances and healing properties.
So, when you prepare a dish of breakfast muesli, a gruel or porridge, think of including raisins; put them through the mincer and then add them to your dish as a sweetener. You may ask, ‘Can I use crude sugar?’ Sugar made from sugar beet is unsuitable for the table; it would not be a good sweetener for fruit muesli because it often makes it taste like soap. There is another drawback to unrefined beet sugar; it is treated with lime, a process that reduces its mineral content. Unrefined cane sugar, as we know it, is not equal to the pilosillo mentioned earlier. Filosillo is simply condensed and crystallised sugar cane juice, whereas the kind we buy in Europe has already been through one refining process, again generally using lime, and is therefore no longer 100 per cent pure. However, it does contain some of the molasses and a total of about 1 percent minerals, so that it is still more valuable than the white, completely refined, sugar.
One of the best remedies to maintain general well-being is fasting. If we do not feel well because we have eaten too much, or if our stomach is upset because we have eaten unsuitable food, perhaps making us vomit and causing diarrhoea, then fasting is a most natural remedy. Under similar circumstances our domestic animals have more sense than we do; they simply refuse all food. When unwell, dogs and cats usually eat grass or some cellulose, so as to bring it up again with the mucus. They follow this up by being off their food for at least a day. Animals instinctively know they must not eat until they feel well again. This natural treatment of upsets is even more closely followed by animals living in the wild. They, too, know of no better remedy than fasting if they are ill. They just lie down in the shade, rest and fast until they feel well again. It would also be good for us if we gave the body a chance to purify itself.
The first thing the patient should be given to drink is clay water; either white or yellow clay will do, a teaspoon of clay to a small wine glass of warm water (100 ml glass, about ÇÓ2 fl. oz). Add several drops of Lachesis Wx or 12x to the clay water. The effect is greater still if 10-20 drops of Echinaforce are also added. The patient needs to go without any food for two or three days, drinking nothing but clay water. After this time he will perhaps feel a little hungry and can then try a peeled and finely grated apple, or he can eat it whole but chew it well. To quench his thirst he can take sour whey – one teaspoon of Molkosan to 100ml (about 3Vz fl. oz) of water – or he can drink fruit juice, such as grapefruit, raspberry, blackberry or non-alcoholic grape juice. Sip and insalivate well before swallowing. If the patient is still very sensitive he may not be able to drink anything but freshly pressed carrot juice. But let me repeat, the juice must be sipped slowly.
By observing these guidelines, you will be able to overcome constipation, especially when you are determined to adopt proper eating habits, not gulping down your food, but masticating it well before swallowing – and always in a calm and relaxed frame of mind.
Another beneficial approach to the problem is to take a warm hay flower sitz bath every evening just before retiring. Relief may also be obtained from a special blood-cleansing programme, the Rasayana Programme. According to Indian doctors, this treatment has a stimulating effect on the entire metabolism and increases the efficiency of the kidneys, liver, bowels and pancreas. Hundreds of people have been able to get rid of chronic constipation with the help of this programme, which serves to cleanse the body fluids especially in the spring. Nevertheless, in spite of the many excellent natural remedies available today, lasting benefits can only be achieved if our many mistakes in diet and life-style are corrected. If you get to the root of the problem, make the necessary changes, and use the natural remedies and treatments suggested, you will be able to find relief from constipation.
Many young people, even though properly brought up and otherwise responsible, hardly ever think about health as being a prerequisite for marriage. Their topics of conversation are often limited to the obvious: questions of where to live, how to furnish the home, holidays and excursions, leisure activities and hobbies, and perhaps the question of whether to have children and how they might bring them up.
As we all know, most employers require job applicants to complete long and detailed questionnaires. The answers help the employer to determine whether the applicant has all the necessary qualifications for the job. It would be just as informative and certainly appropriate with regard to starting a new family if the prospective marriage partners were to complete such a questionnaire. Any good physician or psychologist could easily recognise from the answers what medical risks, if any, the couple might expect to possibly affect their children.